Electric conductor, insulator and semiconductor

Electrical conductor

An electrical conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current. Usually electrons, move easily from atom to atom with the application of voltage. Conductivity is the capacity to transmit electricity or heat.

 

Resistance and conductance

Resistance is known as the disruption to the flow of electrical current through a conductor. it is inversely proportional to conductor.

Conductance is known as the expression which ease with electric current flows through a substance. It is directly proportional to conductor.

The resistivity and conductivity are proportionality constants, and therefore depend only on the material the wire is made of, not the geometry of the wire.

 

Conductor materials

Conduction materials include metals, electrolytes, superconductors, semiconductors, plasmas and some non-metallic conductors such as graphite and Conductive polymers.

  • Pure silver is the best electrical conductor. Copper, steel, gold, aluminium, brass, etc are also good conductors.

  • Mercury is also a good conductor of electricity. A saturated salt-water solution acts as a fair conductor.

  • Gases are normally poor conductors because the atoms are too far apart to allow a free exchange of electrons.

 

Conductor ampacity

The ampacity of a conductor is the amount of current it can carry.

  • It is related to its electrical resistance.

  • Lower-resistance conductor can carry a larger value of current.

 

Insulator

An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely, for example Glass.

The property that distinguishes an insulator is its resistivity; insulators have higher resistivity than semiconductors or conductors

 

Semiconductor

A semiconductor is a material that has an electrical conductivity value between that of a conductor and insulator.

Silicon crystals are the most common semiconducting materials used in microelectronics and photovoltaics.

 

Their resistance decreases as their temperature increases, opposite to a metal.

 

Post By : Ashish Yadav 21 Sep, 2018 tag : Physics IIT

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Ashish Yadav