Electric Charge – How a charge can be produced and Ways of charging a body
Electric Charge – How a charge can be produced and Ways of charging a body.
An electric charge is the property of substance so as to it feels force of attraction or repulsion due to interaction with another charge.
There are two types of electric charge
Electrons having negative charge whereas proton having positive charge. Same charges repel one another and opposite charges attract.
How a charge can be produced?
All bodies consist of atoms which contain equal amount of positive and negative charges in the form of protons and electrons respectively. The number of electrons being equal to the number of protons as an atom is neutral. If the electrons are removed from a body it gets +vely charged.
Ways of charging a body:
Charging by Friction:
When two bodies are rubbed together, a transfer of electrons take place from one body to another. The body from which electrons have been transferred is left with an excess of +ve charge so it gets positively charged and the body which receives the electrons becomes -vely charged. The +ve and –ve charges produced by rubbing are always equal in magnitude.
Charging by electrostatic induction:
If a +vely charged rod is brought near an insulated conductor, the –ve charges (electrons) in the conductor will be attracted towards the rod. As a result, there will be an excess of –ve charge at the end of the conductor near the rod and the excessive +ve charge at the far end. This known as electrostatic induction.
The charges thus induced are found to be equal and opposite to each other. When the positively charged rod is removed, the conductor will again become electrically neutral.
Charging by conduction:
Take two conductors, one charged and other uncharged. Bring the conductors in contact with each other.
The charge (whether –ve or +ve) under its own repulsion will spread over both the conductors. Thus the conductors will be charged with the same sign. This is called as charging by conduction (through contact).