Biological Classification – Kingdom Concept
There are two kingdom classification concepts proposed by Carolus Linnaeus and R.H. Whittaker respectively.
Two kingdom classification:
· Carolus Linnaeus proposed the two kingdom classification and is known as the Father of Taxonomy.
· Linnaeus classified organisms as Plantae (Plants - autotrophs, have cell wall, do not move) & Animalia (Animals - heterotrophs, have no cell wall, can move).
· Later Linnaeus found that the two kingdom classification was not sufficient because in that
Ø Both Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes were grouped together.
Ø Heterotrophs & Autotrophs were together.
Ø There was no difference between unicellular and multi cellular Organisms.
Ø Simple organisms were placed along with higher organisms.
Five kingdom classification:
· Proposed by R.H. Whittaker (1969).
· The kingdoms defined by him were named Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.
Main criteria for classification:
· Based on the complexity of cell structure, organisms are classified as prokaryotes/ Eukaryotes.
· Based on the Body organization, organisms are classified as Unicellular/ Multicellular.
· Based on the mode of nutrition, organisms are classified as autotrophic / heterotrophic /
· Based on Life style (Producers / Consumers / Decomposers)