Types of various Fungus
Phycomycetes (Primitive fungi):
· Found in aquatic habitats and on decaying wood in moist and damp places or as obligate parasites on plants.
· The mycelium is aseptate and coenocytic.
· Asexual reproduction takes place by zoospores (motile) or by aplanospores (nonmotile). These spores are endogeneously produced in sporangium.
· Zygospores are formed by fusion of two gametes. These gametes are similar in morphology (isogamous) or dissimilar (anisogamous or oogamous). E.g., Mucor,Rhizopus (the bread mould) and Albugo (the parasitic fungi on mustard).
Ascomycetes (Sac fungi):
· They are multicellular (except Yeast, which is unicellular)
· Mycelium is branched and septate.
· The asexual spores are conidia produced exogenously on the special mycelium called conidiophores.
· Sexual spores are called ascospores which are produced endogenously in sac like asci. These asci are arranged in different types of fruiting bodies called ascocarps.
· Neurospora is an example of Ascomycetes used extensively in biochemical and genetic work.
· Many members like morels and buffles are edible and are considereddelicacies. E.g.,Yeast, Aspergillus,Penicillium,Claviceps and neurospora.
Basidiomycetes (Club Fungi, mushrooms, Bracket fungi, puff balls):
They grow in soil, on logs and tree stumps and in living plant bodies as parasites, e.g., rusts and smuts.
· The mycelium is branched and septate.
· The asexual spores are generally not found.
· Vegetative reproduction commonly by fragmentation.
· The sex organs are absent,
· Plasmogamy is brought about by fusion of two vegetative or somatic cells of different strains or genotypes.
· The resultant structure is dikaryotic which ultimately gives rise to basidium.
· Karyogamy and meiosis take place in the basidium producing four basidiospores. The basidiospores are exogenously produced on the basidium. The basidia are arranged in fruiting bodies called basidiocarps. E.g., Agaricus (mushroom), Ustilago (smut) and Puccinia (rust fungus).
Deuteromycetes (Imperfect fungi):
· Commonly known as imperfect fungi because only the asexual or vegetative phases of these fungi are known.
· The deuteromycetes reproduce only by asexual spores known as conidia.
· The mycelium is septate and branched.
· Some members are saprophytes or parasites while a large number of them are decomposers of litter and help in mineral cycling. E.g., Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Trichoderma.