author

Manish Malhotra

teacher | Biology

Description

Hi i am Manish Malhotra, an M.Sc post graduate in Biology and having rich experience in the Teaching.

Qualification

M.Sc

Experience

5-7 Years

Teaching Classes

11-12

Current Organization

Independent Teacher

Scientific and Common names of Phylums

Phulum

Common Names

Scientific Names

Porifera

Scypha

Sycon

Fresh water sponge

Spongilla

Bath sponge

Euspongia

Cnidaria

Portugese man-of-war

Physalia

Sea anemone

Adamsia

Sea-pen

Pennatula

Sea- fan

Gorgonia

Brain coral

Meandrina

Platyheliminthes

Tapeworm

Taenia

Liver fluke

Fasciola

Ascheliminthes

Round worm

Ascaris

Filiaria worm

Wuchereria

Hook worm

Ancylostoma

Annelida

Earthworm

Pheretima

Blood sucking leech

Hurudinaria

Arthropoda

Honey bee

Apis

Silk worm

Bombyx

Lac insect

Laccifer

King crab

Limulus

Mollusca

Apple snail

Pila

Pearl oyster

Pinctada

Cuttle fish

Sepia

Squid

Loligo

Devil fish

Octopus

Sea-hare

Aplysia

Tusk shell

Dentalium

Chiton

Chaetopleura

Echinodermata

Star fish

Asterias

Sea urchin

Echinus

Sea lily

Antedon

Sea cucumber

Cucumaria

Brittle star

Ophiura

Chordata

Lancelet

Branchiostoma

Lamprey

Petromyzon

Hag fish

Myxine

Dog fish

Scoliodon

Flying fish

Exocoetus

Sea horse

Hippocampus

Rohu

Labeo

Angel fish

Pterophyllum

Fighting fish

Betta

 

Phylum - Vertebrates and its classes

Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata. Vertebrates represent the overwhelming majority of the phylum Chordata

 

All vertebrates are chordates but not all chordates are vertebrates

 

Vertebrates have

 

1. Ventral muscular heart with 1,2,3 or 4 chambers

2. Kidneys for excretion and osmoregulation

3. Paired appendages which may be fins or limbs

 

 

Agnatha

 

1. Class: Cyclostomata

·         All are ectoparasites on some fishes

·         Elongated body with 6-15 pairs of gill slits for respiration

·         Sucking and circular mouth without jaws

·         Body is devoid of scales and paired fins

·         Cartilaginous cranium and vertebral column

·         They are marine but migrate to fresh water for spawning and die after spawning

·         The larvae after metamorphosis, return to ocean

·         Eg: Petromyzon (Lamprey), Myxine (Hagfish).

 

Super class: Pisces

 

1. Class: Chondrichthyes

·         Cold blooded animal i.e., Poikilothermic

·         Streamlined body with cartilaginous exoskeleton

·         Ventrally located mouth

·         Notochord persistent throughout life

·         Gill slits are separate without operculum (Gill cover)

·         Tough skin with minute placoid scales; Teeth are modified placoid scales and are backwardly directed

·         2 chambered heart

·         Special characteristics include presence of electric organs (Torpedo); Posion sting (Trygon).

·         Eg: Scoliodon (Dog fish), Pristis (Saw fish), Carcharodon (Great white shark), Trygon (Sting ray).

 

2. Class: Osteichthyes

·         Cold blooded animals

·         Marine fishes with bony exoskeleton

·         Four pairs of gills covered by operculum

·         Skin is covered with cycloid/ctenoid scales

·         Air bladder provides buoyancy

·         2 chambered hear with 1 auricle and 1 ventricle

·         Eg: Marine – Exocoetus (Flying fish), Hippocampus (Sea horse);

·         Freshwater – Labeo (Rohu), Catla (Katla), Clarias (Magur);

·         Aquarium – Betta(Fighting fish), Pterophyllum (Angel fish).

 

Super class: Tetrapoda

 

1. Class: Amphibia

·         Aquatic and terrestrial

·         Body is divisible into head and truck

·         Skin is moist without scales

·         Tympanum represents the ear

·         Respiration by skin, lungs and gills

·         2 auricles and 1 ventricle in 3 chambered heart

·         Alimentary canal. Excretory and reproductive tracts open nto cloaca

 

2. Class: Reptilia

·         Mostly terrestrial

·         Limbs when present are 2 Pairs

·         Dry and cornified skin with Epidermal scales or scutes

·         Tympanum represents ear

·         3chambered heart but 4 in crocodile

 

3. Class: Aves

·         Most of them fly

·         Fore limbs are modified to wings and hind limbs are modified for walking swimming or clasping

·         Skin is dry without glands except oil gland at the base of tail.

·         Endoskeleton is bony with air cavities called Pneumatic bones

·         Respiration is by lungs, Air sacs are connected to lungs to supplement respiration

·         Completely 4 chambered heart

·         Digestive tract with crop and gizzard

 

4. Class: Mammalia

·         Terrestrial; some of them are adapted to fly or live In water

·         Two pairs of limbs adapted for walking, running, climbing, burrowing, swimming or flying

·         Skin is unique possessing hair

·         External ears or pinna are present

·         Respiration is by lungs

·         4 chambered heart

Phylum and different phylas in the classification of animals

Kingdom Animalia is further divided into various phyla. Every phylum has life forms that have regular attributes. In the characterization of creature’s graph, they move from the least difficult to the most unpredictable.

 

The different phyla in the classification of animals are as follows:

 

Phylum Porifera (sponges):

·         It is usually marine and asymmetrical cellular level of organisation.

·         Water canal system helps in food gathering, respiratory exchange and removal of wastes.

·         Digestion intracellular.

·         Ostia (minute pores on body), spongocoel (body cavity) and osculum help in water transport.

·         They are lined by choanocytes (collar cells).

·         Body wall has skeleton called spicules and spongin fibres.

·         Animals are hermaphrodite (sexes not separate).

·         Reproduce asexually by fragmentation and sexually by formation of gametes. Fertilisation is internal and development is indirect.

·         E.g., Sycon, Euspongia (bath sponge), Spongilla (fresh water sponge).

 

Phylum Ctenophora (sea walnuts or combjellies)

·         Exclusively marine, radially symmetrical.

·         Diploblastic with tissue level organisation.

·         Digestion both extra and intracellular.

·         Body has eight external rows of ciliated comb plates for locomotion.

·         Show Bioluminescence (living organism emit light).

·         Sexes are not separate and only sexual reproduction occurs.

·         External fertilisation.

·         E.g. Pleurobrachia, Ctenoplana.

 

Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)

·         Have dorsoventrally flattened body.

·         Endoparasites in animals (found in animals including humans).

·         Bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, acoelomate with organ level organisation.

·         Absorb nutrients through body surface.

·         Parasite forms have hooks and suckers.

·         Flame cells help in osmoregulation and excretion.

·         Fertilisation internal. Many larval stages are present.

·         Planaria has high regeneration capacity.

·         E.g., Taenia, Fasciola.

 

Phylum Aschelminthes (Round worms)

·         May be free living, parasitic, aquatic or terrestrial.

·         Bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, pseudocoelomate with organ system level of organisation

·         Alimentary canal is complete with muscular pharynx and wastes removed through excretory pore.

·         Sexes separate (dioecious).

·         Females longer than males.

·         Fertilisation internal. Development direct (young one resemble the adult) or indirect.

·         E.g., Ascaris, Wuchereria.

 

Phylum Annelida (Latin: annulus = little ring).

·         Aquatic or terrestrial, free-living or parasitic.

·         Bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic & coelomate with organ-system level of organisation.

·         Metamerically segmented body (Have longitudinal and circular muscles for locomotion).

·         Nereis (dioecious and aquatic annelid) has lateral appendages called parapodia for swimming.

·         Have nephridia for osmoregulation and excretion.

·         Closed circulatory system.

·         Neural system consists of paired ganglia connected by lateral nerves to a double ventral nerve cord. E.g., Earthworm (Pheretima) and Leech (Hirudinaria) which are hermaphrodites (i.e., monoecious).

 

Phylum Arthropoda

·         Largest phylum mostly oviparous. Coelomates.

·         Bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, coelomate with organ system level of organisation.

·         Body divisible into head, thorax, abdomen and is shielded by a chitinous exoskeleton.

·         Jointed appendages are present (arthos – joint, poda – appendages).

·         Respiration is by gills, book gills, lungs or tracheal system.

·         Circulation is of open type.

·         Excretion is through malpighian tubules.

·         Antennae, eyes act as sensory organs and statocysts acts as organs of balance present.

·         Fertilisation is internal. Development is indirect or direct.

·         E.g., apis, bombyx, anopheles, locusta, limulus, anopheles etc.

 

Phylum Mollusca

·         Second largest phylum

·         Terrestrial or aquatic

·         Bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, coelomate with Organ system level of organisation

·         Body divisible into head, muscular foot and visceral hump and is covered by calcareous shell. It is unsegmented over visceral hump.

·         Mantle is a soft and spongy layer of skin; Mantle cavity: Space between visceral hump and mantle.

·         Respiration and excretion by feather like gills in mantle cavity.

·         Head has sensory tentacles.

·         Radula-file like rasping organ for feeding.

·         Oviparous, dioecious, have indirect development.

·         E.g., Pila, Pinctada, Octopus.

 

Phylum Echinodermata

·         All marine Spiny bodied organisms.

·         Have an endoskeleton of calcareous ossicles.

·         Exclusively marine, radially symmetrical in adult but bilaterally symmetrical in larval stage.

·         Organ system level of organisation.

·         Digestive system complete. Mouth ventral, anus on dorsal side.

·         Food gathering, respiration, locomotion carried out by water vascular system.

·         Excretory system is absent.

·         Fertilisation external. Development indirect (free swimming larva)

·         E.g., Asterias, Cucumaria, Antedon

 

Phylum Hemichordata

·         Small worm-like organisms.

·         Was earlier placed as sub-phylum of Phylum Chordata.

·         Bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic and coelomate.

·         Cylindrical body, has proboscis, collar and trunk.

·         Respiration by gills, excretion by proboscis gland.

·         Sexes separate, external fertilisation, indirect development.

·         E.g., Balanoglossus.

 

Phylum Chordata

·         Characterised by presence of

o   A Notochord

o   A dorsal hollow nerve cord

o   Paired pharyngeal gill slits

o   Post anal tail

o   Closed circulatory system

·         Bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, coelomate with organ system level of organisation

·         Divided in to 3 sub phyla:

o   Urochordata

o   Cephalochordata

o   Vertebrata

 

Urochordata and Cephalochordata are referred to as Protochordates

 

No Active Challenge

No Questions