Mechanics of Solids
Teach physics , biology, math and Physics
No Active Challenge
Why do we talk in our steep? Why we see unknown faces in the dream.
What are paracetamol and steroidal drugs and how a mystery and much work has to be done to join the links do they work?
What is PRIONS
What is VIROIDS
Explain the Lytic cycle of VIRUS.
Explain How Viruses are Intermediate between Living and Non-Living things.
Explain the Types Of VIRUS.
Explain The Virus Components
Explain The Structure of Virus.
What is VIRUS.
Explain Mitosis or Equational Division
What is Cell Division.
Explain Cell Cycle .
Explain the Inhibition of Enzyme Action
What Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity :
What is Activation Energy?
Explain The Mechanism of Enzyme Action :
What is ENZYMES
What is PRIMARY AND SECONDARY METABOLITES:
What is NUCLEIC ACIDS
What is NUCLEOTIDES
Comparison of various Polysccharides
Explain te Function of Proteins.
Explain the Structure of Proteins
What is PROTEINS.
Explain the Function of LIPID.
What is LIPID ?
Explain is the Function of Glycogen
What is the location of Glycogen.
What is function of starch.
What is location of Starch
What is location of cellulose
Explain the CARBOHYDRATES
What is BioMolecules ,macromolecules. micromolecules.
Explain the Structure and Function Centrosome and Centrioles.
Please explain the structure and function of Cilia and Flagella.
Explain the Structure and Function of Cytoskeleton.
Explain the function and Structure of Glyoxysomes.
Explain The Structure and function of Peroxisomes:
Explain The Structure and Function of Nucleus
EXPLAIN THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF Plastids .
EXPLAIN THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF Mitochondria.
Explain the Structure and Function of Ribosomes.
Explain the Structure and Function of Vacuoles.
Explain the Structure and Function of Lysosomes.
Explain the Structure and Function of Golgi Complex.
Explain the Structure and Function of ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM.
Explain Structure and Function of Cytoplasm and Cytoplasmic Matrix
Explain the Cell Membrane Structure and Function
What is difference between Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cell.
Explain Cell Wall and Their Structure and Function
Describe briefly Ultraviolet B
Describe briefly Catalytic converter
Describe briefly Greenhouse gases
What initiatives were taken for reducing vehicular air pollution in Delhi? Has air quality improved in Delhi?
Describe briefly Municipal solid wastes
Describe briefly Defunct ships and e-wastes
Describe briefly Radioactive wastes
What measures, as an individual, you would take to reduce environmental pollution?
Discuss the role of women and communities in protection and conservation of forests.
Why ozone hole forms over Antarctica? How will enhanced ultraviolet Radiations affect us?
Write critical notes on the following: (a) Eutrophication (b) Biological magnification (c) Groundwater depletion and ways for its replenishment
Discuss the causes and effects of global warming. What measures need to be taken to control global warming?
List all the wastes that you generate, at home, school or during your Trips to other places, could you very easily reduce? Which would be Difficult or rather impossible to reduce?
What are the various constituents of domestic sewage? Discuss the effects of sewage discharge on a river.
Can you think of a situation where we deliberately want to make a species extinct? How would you justify it?
Among the ecosystem services are control of floods and soil erosion. How is this achieved by the biotic components of the ecosystem?
What are sacred groves? What is their role in conservation?
How is biodiversity important for ecosystem functioning?
What are the major causes of species losses in a geographical region?
What is the significance of the slope of regression in a species − area relationship?
Give three hypotheses for explaining why tropics show greatest levels of species richness.
How do ecologists estimate the total number of species present in the world?
Name the three important components of biodiversity
Outline salient features of carbon cycling in an ecosystem
Write important features of a sedimentary cycle in an ecosystem.
Give an account of energy flow in an ecosystem.
Define decomposition and describe the processes and products of decomposition.
What is primary productivity? Give brief description of factors that affect primary productivity.
Define ecological pyramids and describe with examples, pyramids of number and biomass.
Describe the components of an ecosystem
Difference Between Primary and secondary productivity
Difference Between Litter and detritus
Deference between Food chain and Food web
Difference Between Upright and inverted pyramid
difference Between (b) Production and decomposition
Difference Between Grazing food chain and detritus food chain
List any three important characteristics of a population and explain
Select the statement which explains best parasitism. (a) One organism is benefited. (b) Both the organisms are benefited. (c) One organism is benefited, other is not affected. (d) One organism is benefited, other is affected.
With the help of suitable diagram describe the logistic population growth curve.
Define the following terms and give one example for each: (a) Commensalism (b) Parasitism (c) Camouflage (d) Mutualism (e) Interspecific competition
Define population and community
Give an example for: (a) An endothermic animal (b) An ectothermic animal (c) An organism of benthic zone
Write a short note on (a) Adaptations of desert plants and animals (b) Adaptations of plants to water scarcity (c) Behavioural adaptations in animals (d) Importance of light to plants (e) Effect of temperature or water scarcity and the adaptations of animals.
Distinguish between the following: (a) Hibernation and Aestivation (b) Ectotherms and Endotherms
What is the ecological principle behind the biological control method of managing with pest insects
An orchid plant is growing on the branch of mango tree. How do you describe this interaction between the orchid and the mango tree?
Name important defence mechanisms in plants against herbivory.
If a population growing exponentially double in size in 3 years, what is the intrinsic rate of increase (r) of the population?
List the attributes that populations but not individuals possess.
Most living organisms cannot survive at temperature above 45°C°. How are some microbes able to live in habitats with temperatures exceeding 100°C?
Define phenotypic adaptation. Give one example.
If a marine fish is placed in a fresh water aquarium, will the fish be able to survive? Why or why not?
How is diapause different from hibernation?
Consult internet and find out how to make orally active protein pharmaceutical. What is the major problem to be encountered?
Does our blood have proteases and nucleases
Find out from internet what is golden rice.
Can you suggest a method to remove oil (hydrocarbon) from seeds based on your understanding of rDNA technology and chemistry of oil?
Diagrammatically represent the experimental steps in cloning and expressing an human gene (say the gene for growth hormone) into a bacterium like E. coli ?
What is gene therapy? Illustrate using the example of adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency.
What are Cry proteins? Name an organism that produces it. How has man exploited this protein to his benefit?
Compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of production of genetically modified crops.
What are transgenic bacteria? Illustrate using any one example.
Crystals of Bt toxin produced by some bacteria do not kill the bacteria themselves because − (a) bacteria are resistant to the toxin (b) toxin is immature: (c) toxin is inactive: (d) bacteria encloses toxin in a special sac.
Arrange the following in the decreasing order (most important first) of their importance, for the welfare of human society. Give reasons for your answer. Biogas, Citric acid, Penicillin and Curd
Find out the role of microbes in the following and discuss it with your teacher. (a) Single cell protein (SCP) (b) Soil
Three water samples namely river water, untreated sewage water and secondary effluent discharged from a sewage treatment plant were subjected to BOD test. The samples were labelled A, B and C; but the laboratory attendant did not note which was which. The BOD values of the three samples A, B and C were recorded as 20mg/L, 8mg/L and 400mg/L, respectively. Which sample of the water is most polluted? Can you assign the correct label to each assuming the river water is relatively clean?
Microbes can be used to decrease the use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides. Explain how this can be accomplished.
Do you think microbes can also be used as source of energy? If yes, how?
What is the key difference between primary and secondary sewage treatment?
What is sewage? In which way can sewage be harmful to us?
Name any two species of fungus, which are used in the production of the antibiotics.
In which way have microbes played a major role in controlling diseases caused by harmful bacteria?
Name some traditional Indian foods made of wheat, rice and Bengal gram (or their products) which involve use of microbes
In which food would you find lactic acid bacteria? Mention some of their useful applications
Give examples to prove that microbes release gases during metabolism.
Bacteria cannot be seen with the naked eyes, but these can be seen with the help of a microscope. If you have to carry a sample from your home to your biology laboratory to demonstrate the presence of microbes under a microscope, which sample would you carry and why?
Name any five hybrid varieties of crop plants which have been developed in India.
Find out what the various components of the medium used for propagation of explants in vitro are?
What is the major advantage of producing plants by micropropagation?
Which part of the plant is best suited for making virus-free plants and why?
Explain what is meant by biofortification.
Briefly describe various steps involved in plant breeding.
Discuss the role of fishery in enhancement of food production.
What is apiculture? How is it important in our lives?
Name the methods employed in animal breeding. According to you which one of the methods is best? Why
What is meant by the term ‘breed’? What are the objectives of animal breeding?
If your family owned a dairy farm, what measures would you undertake to improve the quality and quantity of milk production?
Explain in brief the role of animal husbandry in human welfare.
In your view what motivates youngsters to take to alcohol or drugs and how can this be avoided?
Why is that once a person starts taking alcohol or drugs, it is difficult to get rid of this habit? Discuss it with your teacher
Do you think that friends can influence one to take alcohol/drugs? If yes, how may one protect himself/herself from such an influence?
List the harmful effects caused by alcohol/drug abuse
Explain what is meant by metastasis
What is the mechanism by which the AIDS virus causes deficiency of immune system of the infected person?
What are the various routes by which transmission of human immunodeficiency virus takes place?
Differentiate the following and give examples of each: (a) Innate and acquired immunity (b) Active and passive immunity
The following are some well-known abbreviations, which have been used in this chapter. Expand each one to its full form: NACO HIV MALT CMI AIDS
Name the primary and secondary lymphoid organs.
Discuss with your teacher what does ‘a suitable gene’ means, in the context of DNA vaccines.
What measure would you take to prevent water-borne diseases?
How does the transmission of each of the following diseases take place? (a) Amoebiasis (b) Malaria (c) Ascariasis (d) Pneumonia
In which way has the study of biology helped us to control infectious diseases?
What are the various public health measures, which you would suggest as safeguard against infectious diseases?
Using various resources such as your school library or the internet and discussions with your teacher, trace the evolutionary stages of any one animal say horse.
Can we call human evolution as adaptive radiation
Describe one example of adaptive radiation
Practise drawing various animals and plants.
List 10 modern-day animals and using the internet resources link it to a corresponding ancient fossil. Name both.
Find out through internet and popular science articles whether animals other than man have self-consciousness.
Attempt giving a clear definition of the term species
Find out from newspapers and popular science articles any new fossil discoveries or controversies about evolution.
Explain antibiotic resistance observed in bacteria in light of Darwinian selection theory
Briefly describe the following: (a) Transcription (b) Polymorphism (c) Translation (d) Bioinformatics
What is DNA fingerprinting? Mention its application
Why is the Human Genome project called a mega project?
Explain (in one or two lines) the function of the followings: (a) Promoter (b) tRNA (c) Exons
In the medium where E. coli was growing, lactose was added, which induced the lac operon. Then, why does lac operon shut down some time after addition of lactose in the medium?
List two essential roles of ribosome during translation.
difference between Template strand and Coding strand
Differentiate between mRNA and tRNA
Differentiate between the Repetitive DNA and Satellite DNA
How did Hershey and Chase differentiate between DNA and protein in their experiment while proving that DNA is the genetic material?
Depending upon the chemical nature of the template (DNA or RNA) and the nature of nucleic acids synthesised from it (DNA or RNA), list the types of nucleic acid polymerases.
Which property of DNA double helix led Watson and Crick to hypothesise semi- conservative mode of DNA replication? Explain.
If the sequence of the coding strand in a transcription unit is written as follows: 5′-ATGCATGCATGCATGCATGCATGCATGC-3′ Write down the sequence of mRNA.
If the sequence of one strand of DNA is written as follows: 5′-ATGCATGCATGCATGCATGCATGCATGC-3′ Write down the sequence of complementary strand in 5’→3′ direction
If a double stranded DNA has 20 per cent of cytosine, calculate the per cent of adenine in the DNA.
Group the following as nitrogenous bases and nucleosides: Adenine, Cytidine, Thymine, Guanosine, Uracil and Cytosine.
Mention any two autosomal genetic disorders with their symptoms.
Who had proposed the chromosomal theory of inheritance?
What is point mutation? Give one example
Explain the following terms with example (a) Co-dominance (b) Incomplete dominance Answer (a) Co-dominance
A child has blood group O. If the father has blood group A and mother blood group B, work out the genotypes of the parents and the possible genotypes of the other offsprings.
How is sex determined in human beings?
What is pedigree analysis? Suggest how such an analysis, can be useful.
Briefly mention the contribution of T.H. Morgan in genetics
Two heterozygous parents are crossed. If the two loci are linked what would be the distribution of phenotypic features in F1 generation for a dihybrid cross?
When a cross in made between tall plants with yellow seeds (TtYy) and tall plant with green seed (TtYy), what proportions of phenotype in the offspring could be expected to be (a) Tall and green. (b) Dwarf and green.
Using a Punnett square, work out the distribution of phenotypic features in the first filial generation after a cross between a homozygous female and a heterozygous male for a single locus.
Define and design a test − cross?
Explain the Law of Dominance using a monohybrid cross.
A diploid organism is heterozygous for 4 loci, how many types of gametes can be produced?
What is the difference between the Dominance and Recessive
Mention the advantages of selecting pea plant for experiment by Mendel.
Correct the following statements: (a) Surgical methods of contraception prevent gamete formation. (b) All sexually transmitted diseases are completely curable. (c) Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among the rural women. (d) In E. T. techniques, embryos are always transferred into the uterus.
State True/False with explanation
What are the measures one has to take to prevent from contracting STDs?
Suggest some methods to assist infertile couples to have children
Amniocentesis for sex determination is banned in our country. Is this ban necessary? Comment.
Removal of gonads cannot be considered as a contraceptive option. Why?
Is the use of contraceptives justified? Give reasons.
What are the suggested reasons for population explosion?
Do you think that reproductive health in our country has improved in the past 50 years? If yes, mention some such areas of improvement.
Is sex education necessary in schools? Why?
Suggest the aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present scenario
What do you think is the significance of reproductive health in a society?
How many eggs do you think were released by the ovary of a female dog which gave birth to 6 puppies?
How many eggs are released by a human ovary in a month? How many eggs do you think would have been released if the mother gave birth to identical twins? Would your answer change if the twins born were fraternal?
In our society the women are often blamed for giving birth to daughters. Can you explain why this is not correct?
What is parturition? Which hormones are involved in induction of parturition?
What is menstrual cycle? Which hormones regulate menstrual cycle?
Identify True/False statements. Correct each false statement to make it true
Name the functions of the following. (a) Corpus luteum (b) Endometrium (c) Acrosome (d) Sperm tail (e) Fimbriae
What is oogenesis? Give a brief account of oogenesis
What are the major functions of male accessory ducts and glands
What are the major components of seminal plasma?
Define spermiogenesis and spermiation.
Name the hormones involved in regulation of spermatogenesis
What is spermatogenesis? Briefly describe the process of spermatogenesis.
Describe the structure of a seminiferous tubule.
Write two major functions each of testis and ovary.
What is apomixis and what is its importance?
Explain the role of tapetum in the formation pollen-grain wall.
If one can induce parthenocarpy through the application of growth substances, which fruits would you select to induce parthenocarpy and why?
What is meant by emasculation? When and why does a plant breeder employ this technique?
Why is apple called a false fruit? Which part(s) of the flower forms the fruit?
Why do you think the zygote is dormant for sometime in a fertilized ovule?
What is triple fusion? Where and how does it take place? Name the nuclei involved in triple fusion.
What is bagging technique? How is it useful in a plant breeding programme?
What is self-incompatibility? Why does self-pollination not lead to seed formation in self-incompatible species?
Mention two strategies evolved to prevent self-pollination in flowers
What are chasmogamous flowers? Can cross-pollination occur in cleistogamous flowers? Give reasons for your answer
Explain the 7-celled, 8-nucleate nature of the female gametophyte.
What is meant by monosporic development of female gametophyte?
describe the parts of a typical angiosperm ovule.
Arrange the following terms in the correct developmental sequence: Pollen grain, sporogenous tissue, microspore tetrad, pollen mother cell, male gametes
Differentiate between microsporogenesis and megasporogenesis. Which type of cell division occurs during these events? Name the structures formed at the end of these two events.
Name the parts of an angiosperm flower in which development of male and female gametophyte take place
Differentiate between gametogenesis from embryogenesis.
Why are offspring of oviparous animals at a greater risk as compared to offspring of viviparous animals?
Examine a few flowers of any cucurbit plant and try to identify the staminate and pistillate flowers. Do you know any other plant that bears unisexual flowers?
What is a bisexual flower? Collect five bisexual flowers from your neighborhood and with the help of your teacher find out their common and scientific names
Describe the post-fertilization changes in a flower
Differentiate between a zoospore and a zygote
Define external fertilization. Mention its disadvantages
Explain why meiosis and gametogenesis are always interlinked?
Higher organisms have resorted to sexual reproduction in spite of its complexity. Why?
Define (a) Juvenile phase, (b) Reproductive phase, (c) Senescent phase.
What is vegetative propagation? Give two suitable examples.
How does the progeny formed from asexual reproduction differ from those formed by sexual reproduction?
Offspring formed due to sexual reproduction have better chances of survival. Why? Is this statement always true?
Why is reproduction essential for organisms?
Why is the offspring formed by asexual reproduction referred to as clone?
Which is a better mode of reproduction sexual or asexual and Why?
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